X
Crash Courses *    67 Selections in IIT JEE 2012 *    192 Selections in AIEEE 2012 *    19 Selections in AIPMT 2012 *    330 Students score 90% + in CBSE-XII Board 2013 *    445 Students score 10 CGPA in CBSE-X Board 2013
Attend Free Demo Class Now
Name
 
Contact Number
 
 
Email ID
 
 
Class
 
City
 
   
1-800-3070-0017 (India Toll Free No.)
Live Support Chat
ELECTRON-DONATING AND ELECTRON-WITHDRAWING SUBSTITUENTS
Substituents Can Affect Both the Reactivity of the Ring and the Orientation of the Incoming Group
Electron-Donating and Electron-Withdrawing Substituents

Whether a substituent is an activating group or a deactivating group, and whether it is an ortho–para director or a meta director, depends largely on whether the substituent donates electrons to the ring or whether it withdraws electrons.

  • All electron-donating groups are activating groups and all are ortho–para directors.
  • With the exception of halogen substituents, all electron-withdrawing groups are deactivating groups and all are meta directors.
  • Halogen substituents are weakly deactivating groups and are ortho–para directors.

Figure
Live Chat